[179] There were a total of 63,880 murders in Brazil in 2018. The term is also more recent in origin. Chapter 16: The Americas 23 Terms. Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin American countries. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 1978–79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate. An important artistic movement generated in Latin America is muralism represented by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco and Rufino Tamayo in Mexico, Santiago Martinez Delgado and Pedro Nel Gómez in Colombia and Antonio Berni in Argentina. These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Falklands War left 649 Argentines (including 143 conscripted privates) dead and 1,188 wounded, while the UK lost 255 (88 Royal Navy, 27 Royal Marines, 16 Royal Fleet Auxiliary, 123 British Army, and 1 Royal Air Force) dead. For Bilbao, "Latin America" was not a geographical concept, since he excluded Brazil, Paraguay and Mexico. The 15 busiest ports in South America are: Port of Santos (Brazil), Port of Bahia de Cartagena (Colombia), Callao (Peru), Guayaquil (Ecuador), Buenos Aires (Argentina), San Antonio (Chile), Buenaventura (Colombia), Itajaí (Brazil), Valparaíso (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay), Paranaguá (Brazil), Rio Grande (Brazil), São Francisco do Sul (Brazil), Manaus (Brazil) and Coronel (Chile). Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero is also widely known[308][309][310][by whom?] The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American countries. In the production of pork, Mexico is among the 15 largest producers in the world. It is the birthplace of the "liberator" of South America, Simon Bolivar. Many of the large scale productions were run by forced slave labor. centralists) and federalists, which were in some aspects respectively analogous to liberals and conservatives in other countries. In the 1990s, many of the groups that made up the women's movement began to evolve in order to adapt to a changing political climate. The Mexican–American War, another instance of U.S. involvement in Latin America, was a war between the United States and Mexico that started in April 1846 and lasted until February 1848. A development of this has been the creation of the eight-member ALBA alliance, or "The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America" (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) by some of the countries already mentioned. Financing of water and sanitation remains a serious challenge. 635–636). In fact, they were allowed to keep Guantanamo Bay as a naval base as per an agreement with the previous government of Batista. Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin American countries, and used the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: "despotism." Amerindian languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico, and to a lesser degree, in Panama, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile amongst other countries. [283] Inequality in Latin America has deep historical roots in the Latin European racially based Casta system[284][285][286][287][288][289][290] instituted in Latin America in colonial times that have been difficult to eradicate since the differences between initial endowments and opportunities among social groups have constrained the poorest's social mobility, thus making poverty to be transmitted from generation to generation, becoming a vicious cycle. The railway and fluvial sector, although it has potential, is usually treated in a secondary way. The next year the British attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo. [244][245][246] In textile industry, Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade. [174] Most educational systems in the region have implemented various types of administrative and institutional reforms that have enabled reach for places and communities that had no access to education services in the early 1990s. Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo (r. 1930–61) achieved support from the US by becoming Latin America's leading anti-communist. When Walker subsequently returned to Central America in 1860, he was apprehended by the Honduran authorities and executed. Some 3,000 Latin Americans were killed between 1914 and 1933. [21] Two events related with the U.S. played a central role in both works. The crisis began in 1987 with an assault by Soviet-equipped national army troops against the pro-Western rebel movement UNITA in southeastern Angola. Brazil began selling automobiles to other countries, and some Latin American countries set up plants to assemble imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs. Due to the Andes Mountains, Amazon River and Amazon Forest, there have always been difficulties in implementing transcontinental or bioceanic highways. [55] In order to solve this problem, Great Britain turned to the Spanish colonies in South America for resources and markets. Estimates indicate that 30% of preschool age children (ages 4–5) do not attend school, and for the most vulnerable populations, the poor and rural, this calculation exceeds 40 percent. Its full use still depends on the construction of locks, major dredging works and, mainly, of ports that allow intermodal integration. (As Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America.) [79] President Ávila was able to use the increased revenue to improve the country's credit, invest in infrastructure, subsidize food, and raise wages. Unlike in English colonies, Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and Iberian colonists was very common and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Musicians such as Yma Súmac, Chabuca Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Víctor Jara, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo Cabral, Mercedes Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso, Susana Baca, Chavela Vargas, Simon Diaz, Julio Jaramillo, Toto la Momposina, Gilberto Gil, Maria Bethânia, Nana Caymmi, Nara Leão, Gal Costa, Ney Matogrosso as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimani and Los Kjarkas are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach. mestizos (sic) and mulatos may not have always have been first class citizens in their countries, but they were never disowned in the way the outcomes of unions of Europeans and Native Americans were in the British colonies, where interracial marriages were taboo and one drop of Black or Amerindian blood was enough to make the person 'impure'. These resources are exported and contribute largely to the country’s GDP. In the mid-1840s some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. mestizos (sic) form the majority of the population in Mexico, Central America, and much of South America. Latin America specializes in food processing, Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. [188] The cost of antiretroviral medicines remain a barrier for some in Latin America, as well as country wide shortages of medicines and condoms. [citation needed] The presidencies of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet in Chile, Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff in Brazil, Néstor Kirchner and his wife Cristina Fernández in Argentina, Tabaré Vázquez and José Mujica in Uruguay, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, Fernando Lugo in Paraguay, Manuel Zelaya in Honduras (removed from power by a coup d'état), Mauricio Funes and Salvador Sánchez Cerén in El Salvador are all part of this wave of left-wing politicians who often declare themselves socialists, Latin Americanists, or anti-imperialists (often implying opposition to US policies towards the region). The Dominican Republic comprises the eastern two-thirds of what Spanish colonizers named the island of Hispaniola, and it has historically had a tense relationship with the western third of the island, Haiti. He cooperated with the United States as it moved closer to war against the Axis. Spanish colonization was rather different from later English, or British, colonization of North America. [228], In the production of natural gas, in 2018, Argentina produced 1,524 bcf (billions of cubic feet), Mexico produced 999, Venezuela 946, Brazil 877, Bolivia 617, Peru 451, Colombia 379. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became self-sufficient in oil in 2006–2007. It came to have about 100,000 km of rails, but the lifting of tracks and the emphasis placed on motor transport gradually reduced it. Only a few people recognized or knew about the Holocaust. In the 1970s, Mexico was the location for many cult horror and action movies. His argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. [158] It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, the United States, Canada, Australia and Sweden. [57] They failed to reach Montevideo but succeeded in establishing an alliance with the locals. El Salvador is the smallest but most densely populated country in Central America. While several villages managed to resist the Mita, others offered payment to colonial administrators as a way out. Was there a "Pre-Colonial Legacy"? Honduras borders Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. A large part of Mexico's contribution to the war came through an agreement January 1942 that allowed Mexican nationals living in the United States to join the American armed forces. Despite being the only North American country that is part of Latin America, Mexico is one of the region's largest and most important nations. However in the few hundred years, the Atlantic Slave trade would begin delivering slaves, imported by Spain and other colonizers, by the millions. [170][171][172], The countries of Latin America seek to strengthen links between migrants and their states of origin, while promoting their integration in the receiving state. to have made it to Brazil; around 500 to 1,000 to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay. Protestants are 26% in Brazil and over 40% in much of Central America. An influx of Hollywood films affected the local film industry in Puerto Rico during the 1980s and 1990s, but several Puerto Rican films have been produced since and it has been recovering. Among the most successful have been Juan Gabriel (Mexico) only Latin American musician to have sold over 200 million records worldwide,[312] Gloria Estefan (Cuba), Carlos Santana, Luis Miguel (Mexico) of whom have sold over 90 million records, Shakira (Colombia) and Vicente Fernández (Mexico) with over 50 million records sold worldwide. Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide. Latin america definition, the part of the American continents south of the United States in which Spanish, Portuguese, or French is officially spoken. [131][132][133][134][135][136] If you see an asterisk on the definition, it was a word Mr. Blake said will definitely be on the quiz. The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention. The 10 busiest airports in South America in 2017 were: São Paulo-Guarulhos (Brazil), Bogotá (Colombia), São Paulo-Congonhas (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Lima (Peru), Brasília (Brazil), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires-Aeroparque (Argentina), Buenos Aires-Ezeiza (Argentina), and Minas Gerais (Brazil). Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. It also has important productions of copper and zinc and produces a significant amount of gold. Mexico is the largest source not only of Latin American immigrants, but of all immigrants to the U.S. Central America is comprised of seven countries, six of which are Spanish-speaking. Citizens did not like the government's position under Bolívar: The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion that the military had too much power. [181] Most of the top countries with the highest homicide rates are in Africa and Latin America. Maize in Dourados. [117] In an effort to bring more investors to these industries, these governments also embraced globalization through more open interactions with the international economy. On January 22, 1942, Brazil officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the Allies. While the English were primarily interested in grabbing land, the Spanish in addition had a mandate to incorporate the land's inhabitants into their society, something which was achieved by religious conversion and sexual unions which produced a new 'race' of mestizos, a mixture of Europeans and indigenous peoples. 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