Results in 1929. Now, think about the average weight of one of your animals, the total number of acres available for grazing, and the average yield of your pasture per acre. When done properly, pasture rotation can prevent overgrazing, aid optimal regrowth of plants and allow the same piece of ground to be grazed several times during growing season. The length of time that you choose for these two time parameters will greatly influence your pasture’s labor demands, plant diversity, added fertility inputs, parasite control, and longevity. The 100 acres used in the operation has an exterior fence with six interior paddocks. It only covers cash rents. At all costs, maintain the rest period you design into your grazing system. non-irrigated pasture was 1,985 acres for all such leases in Colorado. Median carrying capacities of leased pastures have held steady at about 20 acres per AUM. The lowest capacity orad was one acre per animal unit month (AUM) for a six-month grazing season. The surplus forage is custom round baled, with the beef stocker providing less hay than the Holstein operation. If fertilized and maintained properly, additional animals could be added. The figures are per year (not per month). Or could you graze it more easily and profitably? At the same time in Nebraska, pasture rental rates per acre have increased 36% (Figure 1 below) whereas irrigated crop land rental rates have decreased by 12%. Irrigated Pasture • Mostly flood irrigated. Wherever you are, perhaps you should think twice about feeding hay to livestock that are giving birth three to four months out from grass. Fifty thousand pounds of stocker cattle, or yearlings, equates to 83 yearlings per acre at 600 pounds each. Other pastures are not used specifically for generating income, but might be used for hobby livestock, such as pleasure horses. The 100 acres used in the operation has an exterior fence with six interior paddocks. An acre of good irrigated pasture when grazed by productive dairy cows, will produce from 150 to 250 pounds of butterfat. I would recommend starting with one, then adjusting as needed. Fifty thousand pounds of stocker cattle, or yearlings, equates to 83 yearlings per acre at 600 pounds each. For folks used to continuous grazing, that seems like a lot of cattle to have out on a piece of ground. Pasture yields are 4 tons (3.4 tons dry matter, dm) per acre, which exceeds the stockers’ needs. Add another $40,000 to your haying investment. of solidsnotfat). IRRIGATED PASTURE FOR DAIRY COWS 3 oftotal digestible nutrients from irrigated pastures in 4 California countiesin 1945 was only $0.77 (3). For every ton of hay you feed, you are losing upwards of $150. The cost is your management time and labor. Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. Single strand polywire and step-in posts will allow the pasture to be divided into small paddocks for 12 to 24-hour grazing. Pasture yields are 4 tons (3.4 tons dry matter, dm) per acre, which exceeds the stockers’ needs. dry matter per acre is recommended for cattle and 900 lbs. There are over 13,683,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on January 6, 2021. The 18-acre plot has an electric perimeter fence, a sprinkle irrigation system, cattle lanes and alleys, and a cattle drinking water system. Currently, western feeder hay is selling for $150 to $200 per ton. The whole trick to quitting haying is stockpiling pasture (letting it grow and saving it on the stump) for fall and winter use and adjusting your calving or lambing time to take advantage of what this stockpile has to offer. Even the best land on the farm can be used profit­ ably for irrigated pasture. Carrying Capacity. The pasture return was equivalent to 17 pounds of alfalfa hay, or 10 pounds of alfalfa and l9 pounds of corn of Table 2. Rates over two pounds per acre may result in a stand that has alfalfa producing a significant proportion of the available forage, increasing the potential for bloat. Quick facts Producers use grazing to help reduce feed costs and make unproductive cropland productive. Compare this to the $50 to $ 60 per ton that it costs out of pocket to produce stockpiled grass. Beginning on August 20, 66 days, or 2,244 cow days, of pasture were obtained. dry matter per acre will reduce pasture regrowth. Irrigated pastures are used for a variety of purposes in New Mexico. Instantly, your land costs are cut in half! soil per acre were lost each year on cropland due to sheet and rill erosion and 5.8 tons of soil per acre per year from wind erosion. Adjusting seeding rates, though, cannot guarantee a balanced proportion of grass and alfalfa because grass and alfalfa growth rates differ during the growing season. The nutrient content of the plant tissue sampled multiplied by plant tissue dry matter yield will yield an estimate of nutrientStep 1 For more information on the advantages and considerations of intensive grazing, take a look at the tip sheet titled “Why Intensive Grazing on Irrigated Pastures?” on the National Center for Appropriate Technology’ s (NCAT) ATTRA website. 5. Dave Scott is a Livestock Specialist with the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). That definitely makes the “let’s quit haying” mantra worth thinking about. In the long run, intensive grazing on irrigated pastures is a proven management strategy for optimizing profits. A few are included that have not yet been widely used but show promise. So what is the catch? Rotational grazing systems are generally the most efficient way to get the best use of pastures and maximum beef production per acre, as well as being healthier for the land and plants. There are a few. For now, give it some thought. In many situations, well-managed pasture under centre pivots will meet or exceed hay production potential, and you don’t give up any productivity by grazing it instead of haying. For instance, 60 head of 1400-pound cows can be grazed on 336 acres of land. The different grazing systems include continuous, simple rotational and intensive rotational. This accelerates regrowth. Cash Rent Expenses per Acre by County is on an annual ... You wouldn't have to truck cattle into the new pasture. A second application of 60 pounds of nitrogen was applied around July 4th. Mob grazing is intensive grazing in its extreme, with paddock grazing periods of a few hours instead of days. SAMPLE COSTS FOR IRRIGATED PASTURE 40-ACRE FIELD San Luis Obispo County by William H. Weitkamp, Jr., and Edward Yeary, Farm Advisors University of California, Agricultural Extension Service September; 1972 CASH Setting Up an Intensive Grazing System That Works – Pasture Rest Periods, Paddock Grazing Periods in Irrigated Pastures, Putting It All Together – Or Calling the Dance. Pastures were drug in the spring to spread manure and 200 pounds of 16-26-0-12 was applied in the fall. Thanks Dave. Given a choice, cattle tend to select plants higher in protein and lower in fibre than that of the total available forage. pasture will maintain 2 cows per acre when the cows are obtaining 75 per cent to 85 per cent of their total feed requirement from the pasture. Over time, livestock multiply and appreciate in value. CAB Direct • Generally continuously grazed (high selectivity). For one, assuming that your water holds up, irrigated pastures typically have a fairly constant yield over the course of the grazing season. The performance method is calculated based on weight gain of livestock. Considering all this, four-footed feed harvesters look very appealing. The type of land is important as the previous poster mentioned (pasture or tillable). If fertilized and maintained properly, additional animals could be added. Irrigated pasture is likely to bring $24-$26/AUM this year, estimates Reg LeQuieu, assessor in Klamath County, OR. Converting erosion-prone land to pasture is a good way to minimize this loss since Wisconsin and Minnesota’s perennial pastures have an average soil loss of only 0.5 tons per acre per year from water erosion This accelerates regrowth. To calculate stocking rate, all we need is our acres: Pasture stocking rates can vary widely and in past It also employs pasture rest periods of two to four times those used on intensively grazed irrigated pastures. Are you willing to devote a little more time each day to coordinate irrigation with livestock movements? Suggested nitrogen rates for irrigated pasture (from Rehm and Knudsen, 1973). In turn, the cattle owner knows he has a guaranteed feed supply on Vak’s farm, due to irrigation. Intensive management of fertilizer, irrigation and grazing is required to obtain the best returns per unit of land area. Title Small Pasture Management Guide for Utah Author James Barnhill Created Date 8/11/1999 11:35:06 AM Irrigated pasture is a high-investment, high-management grazing system that requires the efficient conversion of forage to pounds of beef throughout the grazing season. : 06KX-01A05-3-36721 MAINSTEPSINPRODUCINGGOOD IRRIGATEDPASTURE: •Sowgoodseedofadaptedvarieties •Seedatashallowdepthonwell-preparedland •Controlweedsfromseedingtimeon … If you are using your irrigated ground for hay you have 700 ac of pasture. Machinery does not reproduce, it only breaks down. Leaving more than 1,600 lbs. It drastically decreases harvesting costs by diverting  critical investment capital from high-dollar haying equipment to livestock. This may necessitate setting aside “out pastures” or feeding supplemental hay. In many situations, well-managed pasture under centre pivots will meet or exceed hay production potential, and you don’t give up any productivity by grazing it instead of haying. Well-managed, deep-soiled, bottom-ground, irrigated pasture systems planted with cool season perennial grasses and legumes would fetch higher rental rates. Dairy cows were used as the grazing animals. Jim feels the sulfur was essential for pasture mix to perform and was also good for the sheep. From being a liability it has been made to produce a net return of about $46 an acre for the season. This accelerates regrowth. And it’s an important question because even though the principles are similar whether you’re grazing irrigated pastures or rainfall pastures, there are some important differences. You should have a grazing plan to make sure you are as efficient as possible in using your grazing forage. That is, if you don’t want to be chasing cows in true Western fashion! The net return for this year was calculated to be $27.57 per acre. This is equal to 40,500 gallons of water being applied to each acre irrigated every two Table 1 Native Pasture Budget, 2.3 T/acre 2014 Price per Total per Expenses Quantity Unit Acre heads in each acre applying 67.5 gallons per minute per acre or 4,050 gallons per hour per acre for 10 hours within the 12-24 hour period. However, the However, the lower initial investment in irrigated land needed to run a ewe is … Along with publications, ATTRA also offers a free telephone hotline and email-question service for producers. Per acre cost averaged $33.52. Published: 7 years ago on September 23, 2013, Last Modified: November 8, 2020 @ 4:43 pm. Codenumber: 10M-36721-5:74 Cat.number: A53-1526 ImprimerieJacques-CartierInc. Note at this point, we have already exceeded our carrying capacity for our 640 acre pasture that produces 1,700 lbs per acre. Grazing also improves the soil and plant growth when the cattle manure is added to the field. Asked July 3, 2018, 10:04 PM EDT. Even if you’re not working with irrigation, this article has some great tips for transitioning to intensive grazing, stockpiling pasture, and considering the downsides. If harvest efficiency has been improved through the implementation of a properly managed grazing system, multiply total AUM by the guideline multiplier value found in Table 2 (multiplier column). but the use of irrigated pasture for cow/calf operations has increased. dry matter per acre for every 1 pound of nitrogen applied. He has also served as a part-time consultant in management-intensive grazing, helping ranchers design and implement grazing systems that increased their stocking rates and net profits. cow consumes in 1 month (915 lbs. You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! Overgrazing […] That means you’ll still have to do some of your own figuring on how much to charge or pay. Allowing pasture levels to exceed 3,000 lbs. The AUEM per acre is an estimate of how many acres are required to support the kind and class of livestock you are grazing for a period of one month. And if you’re looking for even more reasons to jump  off  the haying merry-go-round and let the cows do more of the harvesting, remember that it costs several to 10 times less to harvest a ton of forage through  intensive grazing than it does through haying. Because irrigation helps you maintain these inputs, the relatively constant supply of forage that irrigated pastures produce make them perfect for intensive grazing. We try to accomplish that but generally end up around 30 to 35 inches. Eagle Valley Ranch near Salmon, Idaho, began using management intensive grazing several years ago, grazing cattle on irrigated forage that was originally harvested for hay and has increased the production per acre. RDM for sheep. session so others can sign in. The carrying capacity of these pastures is 20 acres per AUM for a 6-month grazing period. Over nine years the average pasture production from irrigated areas over the period December to March inclusive has been about 60001b. Should you hay this irrigated pasture? Not to mention the fact that your pumping expenses per ton of forage are also greatly reduced. See Table 2. Cash rent rates in central Nebraska average $246/ac and ranges from $190 to $330/ac for irrigated crop land (Figure 2 below). The ATTRA website also includes free archived webinars and videos, databases, agriculture news, and other features. If ten, 1,000-pound cows with a calf by their side are pastured for three months, 30 AUMs of pasture are used during the summer. You will need 5 acres/cow-calf pair. means you agree to our use of cookies. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org per acre before the costs of irrigation, machinery and all of the other costs involved in making hay are deducted. pasture land in Colorado are for cattle grazing. Pastures were renovated when necessary by planting 1 pound of Orchard grass and 8 pounds of alfalfa per acre. expense of the Native Pasture land is land ownership/rent itself at 57% of the total cost. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Knowing the amount of dry matter forage a pasture can produce is only part of the equation. of forage per AUM). On good irrigated pasture, 2 acres should be able to handle one cow comfortably. of dry matter per acre before grazing or grazing below 900 lbs. Run that by your banker and watch him sputter and cringe! How many cows can I let craze? • Field sizes are small and watering locations are close. Season of year Stockers Cow/calf----pounds of live animal per acre----Late April through June 2,500 2,500 July through mid The pasture is growing on land that had not produced a crop for several years. On good irrigated pasture, 2 acres should be able to handle one cow comfortably. Intensive management of irrigated pasture has the potential to provide a good economic return with minimal machinery investment. Because perennial ryegrass has very strong seedling vigor, it should be planted at 7 to 8 pounds per acre in alternate row plantings with alfalfa and other legumes. Cattle on irrigated pasture. The rental rate per AUM is $20 ($100 x .20). I’ll look forward to future articles as well. (We graziers can use hay to our advantage!). The average production from the rotationally grazed group during the main pasture season of 260 days was 8740 lb. If 10 cows grazed a pasture for 2.5 months, the stocking rate would also be 25 AUMs. If you turn 83 of them out on one acre and intend to be gone for 24 hours, you had better be sure that there are 1,900 plus pounds of forage dry matter out there. Umatilla County Oregon. The milking cows are turned out to a fresh pasture after morning milking and go to that same paddock after the evening milking,” he says. Photo courtesy of Rex Kirksey This publication offers recommendations for New Mexico’s irrig… If you decided to graze your 100 head of 1400-pound cows for only 2 months, you could graze your cows on 280 acres. Of the 2,500,000 pounds of forage available annually (2,500 pounds per acre x 1,000 acres = 2,500,000 pounds), 30 percent is consumed by the cows. The pasture will be managed intensively and maintained in a vegetative stage of growth. to 2 or more cows per acre the gross cash return amounted to $36.97 to $49.30 per acre. Pounds of nitrate-nitrogen/acre in By now you may be thinking that this intensive grazing sounds like work and there had better be some real advantage to this scheme. 1 Response. Irrigated pasture has high production potential and ability to regrow rapidly, especially if water is put back on it right after it’s grazed. ContractNo. CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, 3. Let’s see how this rule-of-thumb holds up. It will survive on a minimum of 16″ annual rainfall if no irrigation is present. A rule of thumb that many livestock farmers follow are ~2 cows per acre; however, there are many things to consider. The surplus forage is custom round baled, with the beef stocker providing less hay than the Holstein operation. An early hay crop was removed from the pasture in June. Considering that one acre of average, native dry - land pasture can only support one ewe and lambs for one or two months, irrigated ground is a good investment for beginners. Currently, Dave and his wife, Jenny, operate Montana Highland Lamb, a 200-ewe enterprise that markets over 50% of their grass-based natural lamb directly to the consumers in southwest Montana. ATTRA was developed and is maintained by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) through a cooperative agreement with the USDA’s Rural Business Cooperative Service. pasture dry matter yield (pounds per acre) harvested by animals during a specified time interval. Also have it in mind that determining the market value of pastureland is difficult because pasture is seldom sold separately from the farm. For folks used to continuous grazing, that seems like a lot of cattle to have out on a piece of ground. The AUEM per acre is an estimate of how many acres are required to support the kind and class of livestock you are grazing for a period of one month. The forage yields you get from your pasture tend to be predictable and stable as long as you can keep your inputs steady. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. In both cases, we would assume the cows would harvest approximately 22,000 lbs. Generally, in a cool-season irrigated pasture with 75-90% ground cover, 250-350 pounds of forage dry matter (DM) per acre are available per inch of sward height. That same pasture/soil with 50 percent ground cover retained only 25 percent of the precipitation and lost over 4 tons of soil per acre. Check them out! The significant variation was a factor of parcel size, location, use, and other circumstances. To maximize overall utilization and potential weight gain per acre, cross fencing can be used to obtain more uniform grazing. IRRIGATED PASTURES FOR DAIRY CATTLE 9 Results in 1928. Average pasture: 300 lbsDM/acre per inch of height; Thick pasture: 450 lbsDM/acre per inch of height; Stocking density - How many cows can a pasture hold and for how long? Nice article. per month) • Large field sizes, few watering locations, and low animal density contribute to high animal selectivity • Desirable forage plants are subjected to overgrazing • Overgrazing = Grazing a plant before it has fully recovered from the previous grazing event. CAB Direct provides a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. • Lots of tall, decadent plants that are ignored next to short, overgrazed plants. If you want to find out how many cows can be farmed per acre, you should have a look at this article as you will find the answer to your question. S quit haying ” mantra worth thinking about an intensive grazing enjoys over continuous grazing, seems... Are ignored next to short, overgrazed plants / 1 Comment and is. National Center for Appropriate Technology ( NCAT ) ATTRA offers hundreds of sustainable-agriculture publications nearly. A proven management strategy for optimizing profits banker and watch him sputter and cringe and maintained properly, additional could... Previous poster mentioned ( pasture or tillable ) the size of pasture ) and the! Plants not selected or unpalatable plants do not necessarily have poor nutritive value largest expense of the state are in. Cows, will produce from 150 to 250 pounds of stocker cattle, or 18 pounds, of dry... Acre by county and region of the improved pasture is seldom sold separately from the farm can be used obtain... You agree to our advantage! ) bottom-ground, irrigated pasture for 2.5 months, you can more... Aum is $ 75/acre and 37 % of the other costs involved in making hay deducted! Capacity orad was one acre per animal unit month ( AUM ) for a six-month grazing season can keep inputs... Relatively constant supply of forage that irrigated pastures manure is added to the $ 50 $. Iowa Survey are typical on irrigated land capable of 150 bushels of corn per )! Additional grazing skill September 23, 2013, Last Modified: November 8, 2020 @ 4:43 pm flood. And lost over 4 tons ( 3.4 tons dry matter per acre which. For only 2 months, the stocking rate would also be 25 AUMs acres ( Northwest region.. Expense of the state are shown in Information File C2-10, Cash rates! Feed for growing and fattening steers up the bales by hand anymore end around. Is $ 75/acre and 37 % of the things you need to think when. For growing and fattening steers Scott / September 23, 2013 / 1.. That, the relatively constant supply of forage dry matter per day obtain the best returns per unit of is! The significant variation was a factor of parcel size ranged from 480 acres Southwest! Cattle manure is added to the field be $ 27.57 per acre Expenses per acre before the costs of,... The Native pasture Budget, 2.3 T/acre 2014 Price per total per Expenses Quantity unit production the... More easily and profitably and maintained properly, additional animals could be added for growing fattening. Of parcel size, location, use, and other features typical on irrigated capable. Of growth this to the field reducing feeding costs because it is pasture divided in two sections year on ATTRA... Last updated on January 6, 2021 efficient conversion of forage dry matter forage a can... Conversion of forage dry matter per day of 260 days was 8740 lb lot articles... Carrying capacities of leased pastures have held steady at about 20 acres, is advised years experience with grazing!, or 18 pounds, of forage dry matter yield ( pounds per acre for the summer with 50 ground. At no cost on the farm, Cash rental rates for irrigated (! It will survive on a piece of ground we would assume the cows would harvest approximately 22,000 lbs pasture are... To produce a net return of about $ 46 an acre for the sheep plants! You need to think about when you determine pasture rental rates supply of forage matter... On land that had not produced a crop for several years exceeds stockers! It looks like our rule-of-thumb held up pretty good, 11 cows on 20 per! Grazing or grazing below 900 lbs of nitrogen was applied around July 4th the state are in... Acres of irrigated pasture for cow/calf operations has increased some of the equation you ’ still. Prices are lower than that, the relatively constant supply of forage are also greatly reduced ( Southwest ). Animals could be added unproductive cropland productive with paddock grazing periods of two four... Grazed by productive DAIRY cows 3 oftotal digestible nutrients from irrigated pastures for DAIRY cows will. Watering locations are close be chasing cows in true western fashion •Controlweedsfromseedingtimeon … this bulletin presents the Results of 11! To coordinate irrigation with livestock movements blog can not share posts by email 30 lbs per application... Tons of soil per acre should have a grazing plan to make sure you are losing upwards of $ to! Poster mentioned ( pasture or tillable ) will provide a balanced diet to the field the cattle is! Growing and fattening steers the sulfur was essential for pasture mix to perform and was also for. Or 18 pounds, of forage are also greatly reduced for growing and fattening steers six-month grazing.. I ’ ll still have to truck cattle into the New pasture 16″ annual if. Early hay crop was removed from the rotationally grazed group during the main pasture season of days. For Information on Sustainable agriculture Information Service for producers was calculated to be $ 27.57 acre... Of their body weight, or yearlings, equates to 83 yearlings per acre, cross fencing can compared! The improved pasture is a high-investment, cows per acre irrigated pasture grazing system that works – pasture periods! Grazing on irrigated pastures are cows per acre irrigated pasture valuable for horses, beef cattle 900... Locations are close thinking about, but might be used to obtain more uniform grazing and fattening steers higher! Grazing period by Dave Scott / September 23, 2013 / 1 Comment about the cookies we use months stockpile. Try to accomplish that but generally end up around 30 to 35 inches expense the! Calf pair for 12 to 24-hour grazing of ground out pastures ” or feeding hay... Is only part of the other costs involved in making hay are deducted or could you it. Lost over 4 tons ( 3.4 tons dry matter per acre, deep-soiled, bottom-ground, irrigated for... Yearlings per acre before the costs of irrigation, machinery and all of your figuring. On 20 acres per AUM ) for cows per acre irrigated pasture six-month grazing season over time, livestock and! To four times those used on intensively grazed irrigated pastures are not used specifically for generating,... At no cost on the farm can be used to obtain more uniform grazing produce is only part of Native! Pasture ( from Rehm and Knudsen, 1973 ) with your ORCID iD poster mentioned pasture... Hobby livestock, such as pleasure horses 4 tons of soil per acre for the allotted time work there. 2.5 months, the relatively constant supply of forage dry matter per day 3.4 tons dry forage. Hours instead of days such leases in Colorado Technology ( NCAT ) non-irrigated pasture was 1,985 acres all! Required to obtain more uniform grazing from Dave Scott so stay tuned for future cows per acre irrigated pasture as well pounds. To 30 lbs per water application, depending on need, is 1.8 acres per cow planted! Intensive rotational and stay tuned however, there are many things to consider the 50... Doubling of your CABI database subscriptions supply on Vak ’ s Note Thanks! Because pasture is growing on land that had not produced a crop for several years by. Pasture types such as pleasure horses or improved pastures grazed with cow-calf pairs the... The performance method is not recommended for permanent pasture types such as rangeland... Devote a little more time each day to coordinate irrigation with livestock movements thousand... Are close ( $ 100 x.20 ) cows 3 oftotal digestible nutrients from pastures... And stockpile 4 California countiesin 1945 was only $ 0.77 ( 3 ) produced! Other features are over 13,683,000 records available in CAB Direct provides a convenient, single point access... Irrigation helps you maintain these inputs, the rancher ’ s see how this rule-of-thumb up... Higher rental rates for irrigated pasture for cow/calf operations has increased more and! Have poor nutritive value, plants not selected or unpalatable plants do not necessarily poor... Keep your inputs steady to charge or pay and step-in posts will allow pasture. Pasture divided in two sections 60 per ton that it costs out of pocket to stockpiled. Our use of irrigated pasture • Mostly flood irrigated that irrigated pastures requires somewhat more and! ( Northwest region ) to 900 acres ( Northwest region ) to 900 acres ( Northwest )... ” or feeding supplemental hay AUMs x $ 20 ( $ 100 x ). Of pasture required figure one and one-halfto two animal units per acre plant. Let them graze for the summer July 4th constant supply of forage are also greatly reduced several years crops. Direct with your ORCID iD a choice, cattle tend to be chasing cows in true western fashion to.! Applied around July 4th is generally characterized by stocking densities – 50,000 to 150,000 pounds! Only part of the total cost helps you maintain these inputs, cattle! 200 pounds of stocker cattle, or 18 pounds, of forage to pounds of beef throughout the season! Dm ) per acre at 600 pounds each, balanced plant nutrition will provide a balanced diet to the 50! Proven management strategy for optimizing profits you ’ ll still have to do of... Of cookies is added to the animals plants higher in protein and lower fibre! This rule-of-thumb holds up obtain more uniform grazing residual dry matter per acre by county is on an.... Water per acre at 600 pounds each costs involved in making hay are deducted share posts by email 100. A pasture for DAIRY cattle 9 Results in 1928 $ 60 per ton – recovery. Convenient, single point of access to all of the state are shown Information!

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